Saturday, November 20, 2010


source: internet

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way our bodies use digested food for energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the body’s main source of fuel.

After digestion, glucose enters the bloodstream. Then glucose goes to cells throughout the body where it is used for energy. However, a hormone called insulin must be present to allow glucose to enter the cells. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

a) food-> breakdown into glucose -> bloodstream-> insulin present->uptake of glucose into the cells-> normal metabolites occur

b) food-> breakdown into glucose->bloodstream ->insulin deficit->glucose remain in bloodstream->starvation of cells->metabolite disturbed

c) food->breakdown into glucose-> bloodstream-> insulin deficit-> glucose remain in bloodstream (high amount) -> irritation n damaging of nerves + B.V->complication on vital organ-> may lead to fatal in certain chronic cases

In people who do not have diabetes, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. However, diabetes develops when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, or the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin properly, or both. As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy.

Over time, high blood glucose levels damage nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease and stroke, the leading causes of death among people with diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes can eventually lead to other health problems as well, such as vision loss, kidney failure, and amputations.

What is pre-diabetes?

Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Pre-diabetes is also called impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Many people with pre-diabetes develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. In addition, they are at risk for heart disease and stroke. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, people with pre-diabetes can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes and lower their risk of heart disease and stroke

What is the connection between diabetes, heart

disease, and stroke?

If you have diabetes, you are at least twice as likely as someone who does not have diabetes to have heart disease or a stroke. People with diabetes also tend to develop heart disease or have strokes at an earlier age than other people. If you are middle-aged and have type 2 diabetes, some studies suggest that your chance of having a heart attack is as high as someone without diabetes who has already had one heart attack. Women who have not gone through menopause usually have less risk of heart disease than men of the same age. But women of all ages with diabetes have an increased risk of heart disease because diabetes cancels out the protective

effects of being a woman in her child-bearing years.

People with diabetes who have already had one heart attack run an even greater risk of having a second one. In addition, heart attacks in people with diabetes are more serious and more likely to result in death. High blood glucose levels over time can lead to increased deposits of fatty materials on the insides of the blood vessel walls. These deposits may affect blood flow, increasing the chance of clogging and hardening of blood vessels (atherosclerosis).

What are the risk factors for heart disease and stroke in people with diabetes?

Diabetes itself is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Also, many people with diabetes have other conditions that increase their chance of developing heart disease and stroke. These conditions are called risk factors. One risk factor for heart disease and stroke is having a family history of heart disease. If one or more members of your family had a heart attack at an early age (before age 55 for men or 65 for women), you may be at increased risk.

You can’t change whether heart disease runs in your family, but you can take steps to control the other risk factors for heart disease listed here:

  • Having central obesity. Central obesity means carrying extra weight around the waist, as opposed to the hips. A waist measurement of more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women means you have central obesity. Your risk of heart disease is higher because abdominal fat can increase the production of LDL (bad) cholesterol, the type of blood fat that can be deposited on the inside of blood vessel walls.

  • Having abnormal blood fat (cholesterol) levels.
    – LDL cholesterol can build up inside your blood vessels, leading to narrowing and hardening of your arteries—the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Arteries can then become blocked. Therefore, high levels of LDL cholesterol raise your risk of getting heart disease.

    – Triglycerides are another type of blood fat that can raise your risk of heart disease when the levels are high.

    – HDL (good) cholesterol removes deposits from inside your blood vessels and takes them to the liver for removal. Low levels of HDL cholesterol increase your risk for heart disease.

  • Having high blood pressure. If you have high blood pressure, also called hypertension, your heart must work harder to pump blood. High blood pressure can strain the heart, damage blood vessels, and increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney problems.

  • Smoking. Smoking doubles your risk of getting heart disease. Stopping smoking is especially important for people with diabetes because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels. Smoking also increases the risk of other long-term complications, such as eye problems. In addition, smoking can damage the blood vessels in your legs and increase the risk of amputation.

What can I do to prevent or delay heart disease and


Even if you are at high risk for heart disease and stroke, you can help keep your heart and blood vessels healthy. You can do so by taking the following steps:

  • Make sure that your diet is “heart-healthy.” Meet with a registered dietitian to plan a diet that meets these goals:
    • Include at least 14 grams of fiber daily for every 1,000 calories consumed. Foods high in fiber may help lower blood cholesterol. Oat bran, oatmeal, whole-grain breads and cereals, dried beans and peas (such as kidney beans, pinto beans, and black-eyed peas), fruits, and vegetables are all good sources of fiber. Increase the amount of fiber in your diet gradually to avoid digestive problems.
    • Cut down on saturated fat. It raises your blood cholesterol level. Saturated fat is found in meats, poultry skin, butter, dairy products with fat, shortening, lard, and tropical oils such as palm and coconut oil. Your dietitian can figure out how many grams of saturated fat should be your daily maximum amount.
    • Keep the cholesterol in your diet to less than 300 milligrams a day. Cholesterol is found in meat, dairy products, and eggs.
    • Keep the amount of trans fat in your diet to a minimum. It’s a type of fat in foods that raises blood cholesterol. Limit your intake of crackers, cookies, snack foods, commercially prepared baked goods, cake mixes, microwave popcorn, fried foods, salad dressings, and other foods made with partially hydrogenated oil. In addition, some kinds of vegetable shortening and margarines have trans fat. Check for trans fat in the Nutrition Facts section on the food package.
  • Make physical activity part of your routine. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week. Think of ways to increase physical activity, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator. If you haven’t been physically active recently, see your doctor for a checkup before you start an exercise program.
  • Reach and maintain a healthy body weight. If you are overweight, try to be physically active for at least 30 minutes a day, most days of the week. Consult a registered dietitian for help in planning meals and lowering the fat and calorie content of your diet to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Aim for a loss of no more than 1 to 2 pounds a week.
  • If you smoke, quit. Your doctor can help you find ways to quit smoking.
  • Ask your doctor whether you should take aspirin. Studies have shown that taking a low dose of aspirin every day can help reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, aspirin is not safe for everyone. Your doctor can tell you whether taking aspirin is right for you and exactly how much to take.
  • Get prompt treatment for transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Early treatment for TIAs, sometimes called mini-strokes, may help prevent or delay a future stroke. Signs of a TIA are sudden weakness, loss of balance, numbness, confusion, blindness in one or both eyes, double vision, difficulty speaking, or a severe headache.

What types of heart and blood vessel disease occur in people with diabetes?

Two major types of heart and blood vessel disease, also called cardiovascular disease, are common in people with diabetes: coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebral vascular disease. People with diabetes are also at risk for heart failure. Narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels in the legs, a condition called peripheral arterial disease, can also occur in people with diabetes.

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease, also called ischemic heart disease, is caused by a hardening or thickening of the walls of the blood vessels that go to your heart. Your blood supplies oxygen and other materials your heart needs for normal functioning. If the blood vessels to your heart become narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits, the blood supply is reduced or cut off, resulting in a heart attack.

Cerebral Vascular Disease

Cerebral vascular disease affects blood flow to the brain, leading to strokes and TIAs. It is caused by narrowing, blocking, or hardening of the blood vessels that go to the brain or by high blood pressure.


A stroke results when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly cut off, which can occur when a blood vessel in the brain or neck is blocked or bursts. Brain cells are then deprived of oxygen and die. A stroke can result in problems with speech or vision or can cause weakness or paralysis. Most strokes are caused by fatty deposits or blood clots—jelly-like clumps of blood cells—that narrow or block one of the blood vessels in the brain or neck. A blood clot may stay where it formed or can travel within the body. People with diabetes are at increased risk for strokes caused by blood clots.

A stroke may also be caused by a bleeding blood vessel in the brain. Called an aneurysm, a break in a blood vessel can occur as a result of high blood pressure or a weak spot in a blood vessel wall.


TIAs are caused by a temporary blockage of a blood vessel to the brain. This blockage leads to a brief, sudden change in brain function, such as temporary numbness or weakness on one side of the body. Sudden changes in brain function also can lead to loss of balance, confusion, blindness in one or both eyes, double vision, difficulty speaking, or a severe headache. However, most symptoms disappear quickly and permanent damage is unlikely. If symptoms do not resolve in a few minutes, rather than a TIA, the event could be a stroke. The occurrence of a TIA means that a person is at risk for a stroke sometime in the future. See page 3 for more information on risk factors for stroke.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is a chronic condition in which the heart cannot pump blood properly—it does not mean that the heart suddenly stops working. Heart failure develops over a period of years, and symptoms can get worse over time. People with diabetes have at least twice the risk of heart failure as other people. One type of heart failure is congestive heart failure, in which fluid builds up inside body tissues. If the buildup is in the lungs, breathing becomes difficult.

Blockage of the blood vessels and high blood glucose levels also can damage heart muscle and cause irregular heart beats. People with damage to heart muscle, a condition called cardiomyopathy, may have no symptoms in the early stages, but later they may experience weakness, shortness of breath, a severe cough, fatigue, and swelling of the legs and feet. Diabetes can also interfere with pain signals normally carried by the nerves, explaining why a person with diabetes may not experience the typical warning signs of a heart attack.

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Another condition related to heart disease and common in people with diabetes is peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With this condition, the blood vessels in the legs are narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits, decreasing blood flow to the legs and feet. PAD increases the chances of a heart attack or stroke occurring. Poor circulation in the legs and feet also raises the risk of amputation. Sometimes people with PAD develop pain in the calf or other parts of the leg when walking, which is relieved by resting for a few minutes.

How will I know whether I have heart disease?

One sign of heart disease is angina, the pain that occurs when a blood vessel to the heart is narrowed and the blood supply is reduced. You may feel pain or discomfort in your chest, shoulders, arms, jaw, or back, especially when you exercise. The pain may go away when you rest or take angina medicine. Angina does not cause permanent damage to the heart muscle, but if you have angina, your chance of having a heart attack increases.

A heart attack occurs when a blood vessel to the heart becomes blocked. With blockage, not enough blood can reach that part of the heart muscle and permanent damage results. During a heart attack, you may have

  • chest pain or discomfort
  • pain or discomfort in your arms, back, jaw, neck, or stomach
  • shortness of breath
  • sweating
  • nausea
  • light-headedness

Symptoms may come and go. However, in some people, particularly those with diabetes, symptoms may be mild or absent due to a condition in which the heart rate stays at the same level during exercise, inactivity, stress, or sleep. Also, nerve damage caused by diabetes may result in lack of pain during a heart attack.

Women may not have chest pain but may be more likely to have shortness of breath, nausea, or back and jaw pain. If you have symptoms of a heart attack, call 911 right away. Treatment is most effective if given within an hour of a heart attack. Early treatment can prevent permanent damage to the heart.

Your doctor should check your risk for heart disease and stroke at least once a year by checking your cholesterol and blood pressure levels and asking whether you smoke or have a family history of premature heart disease. The doctor can also check your urine for protein, another risk factor for heart disease. If you are at high risk or have symptoms of heart disease, you may need to undergo further testing.

What are the treatment options for heart disease?

Treatment for heart disease includes meal planning to ensure a heart-healthy diet and physical activity. In addition, you may need medications to treat heart damage or to lower your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol. If you are not already taking a low dose of aspirin every day, your doctor may suggest it. You also may need surgery or some other medical procedure.

How will I know whether I have had a stroke?

The following signs may mean that you have had a stroke:

  • sudden weakness or numbness of your face, arm, or leg on one side of your body
  • sudden confusion, trouble talking, or trouble understanding
  • sudden dizziness, loss of balance, or trouble walking
  • sudden trouble seeing out of one or both eyes or sudden double vision
  • sudden severe headache

If you have any of these symptoms, call 911 right away. You can help prevent permanent damage by getting to a hospital within an hour of a stroke. If your doctor thinks you have had a stroke, you may have tests such as a neurological examination to check your nervous system, special scans, blood tests, ultrasound examinations, or x rays. You also may be given medication that dissolves blood clots.

What are the treatment options for stroke?

At the first sign of a stroke, you should get medical care right away. If blood vessels to your brain are blocked by blood clots, the doctor can give you a “clot-busting” drug. The drug must be given soon after a stroke to be effective. Subsequent treatment for stroke includes medications and physical therapy, as well as surgery to repair the damage. Meal planning and physical activity may be part of your ongoing care. In addition, you may need medications to lower your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol and to prevent blood clots.

Points to Remember

  • If you have diabetes, you are at least twice as likely as other people to have heart disease or a stroke.

  • Controlling the ABCs of diabetes—A1C (blood glucose), blood pressure, and cholesterol—can cut your risk of heart disease and stroke.

  • Choosing foods wisely, being physically active, losing weight, quitting smoking, and taking medications (if needed) can all help lower your risk of heart disease and stroke.

  • If you have any warning signs of a heart attack or a stroke, get medical care immediately—don’t delay. Early treatment of heart attack and stroke in a hospital emergency room can reduce damage to the heart and the brain.

Friday, November 19, 2010



Generic Name: aspirin (oral) (AS pir in)
Brand Names: Arthritis Pain, Aspergum, Aspir-Low, Aspirin Lite Coat, Bayer Aspirin, Bufferin, Easprin, Ecotrin, Empirin, Fasprin, Genacote, Halfprin, Norwich Aspirin, St. Joseph Aspirin, Stanback Analgesic, Tri-Buffered Aspirin, YSP Aspirin, Zorprin

There are many brands and forms of aspirin available and not all brands are listed.

a) What is aspirin?

Aspirin is in a group of drugs called salicylates. It works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation.

Aspirin is used to treat mild to moderate pain, and also to reduce fever or inflammation. It is sometimes used to treat or prevent heart attacks, strokes, and angina. Aspirin should be used for cardiovascular conditions only under the supervision of a doctor.

b) Important information about aspirin

~Aspirin should not be given to a child or teenager who has a fever, especially if the child also has flu symptoms or chicken pox. Aspirin can cause a serious and sometimes fatal condition called Reye's syndrome in children.

Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any symptoms of bleeding in your stomach or intestines. Symptoms include black, bloody, or tarry stools, and coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Avoid drinking alcohol while you are taking this medication. Alcohol may increase your risk of stomach bleeding.

Aspirin is sometimes used to treat or prevent heart attacks, strokes, and chest pain (angina). Aspirin should be used for cardiovascular conditions only under the supervision of a doctor.

Before taking aspirin


Aspirin should not be given to a child or teenager who has a fever, especially if the child also has flu symptoms or chicken pox. Aspirin can cause a serious and sometimes fatal condition called Reye's syndrome in children.

Do not use this medication if you are allergic to aspirin, or if you have:

1. -a recent history of stomach or intestinal bleeding.

2. -a bleeding disorder such as hemophilia; or

3. -an allergy to an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) such as :

Advil, Motrin,Aleve, Orudis, Indocin, Lodine, Voltaren, Toradol, Mobic, Relafen, Feldene, and others.

If you have any of these other conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take aspirin:

i) asthma or seasonal allergies;
ii) stomach ulcers;
iii) liver disease;
iv) kidney disease;
v) a bleeding or blood clotting disorder;
vi) heart disease, high blood pressure, or congestive heart failure;
vii) gout
xii) nasal polyps.

If you are taking aspirin to prevent heart attack or stroke, avoid also taking ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). Ibuprofen may make this medication less effective in protecting your heart and blood vessels.

If you must use both medications, take the ibuprofen at least 8 hours before or 30 minutes after you take the aspirin (non-enteric coated form). This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby's heart, and may also reduce birth weight or have other dangerous effects. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while you are taking this medication. Aspirin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

c) How should I take aspirin?

Use aspirin exactly as directed on the label, or as it has been prescribed by your doctor. Do not use the medication in larger or smaller amounts, or use it for longer than recommended.

Take this medication with a full glass of water. Taking aspirin with food or milk can lessen stomach upset. Enteric-coated aspirin is specially formulated to be gentle on your stomach, but you may take it with food or milk if desired. Do not crush, chew, break, or open an enteric-coated or extended-release pill. Swallow the pill whole.

The enteric-coated pill has a special coating to protect your stomach. Breaking the pill could damage this coating. The extended-release tablet is specially made to release medicine slowly in the body. Breaking this pill would cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.

The chewable tablet form of aspirin must be chewed before swallowing.

Keep the orally disintegrating (effervescent) tablet in its package until you are ready to take the medicine. Open the package and peel the back cover from the tablet. Using dry hands, place the tablet into your mouth. It will begin to dissolve right away, without water. Do not swallow the tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing.

If you need to have any type of surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are taking aspirin. You may need to stop using the medicine for a short time.

Do not take this medication if you smell a strong vinegar odor in the aspirin bottle. The medicine may no longer be effective. Store aspirin at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

p/s: hope this will help :P

Differences between aspirin and paracetamol

However, there are important differences between the effects of aspirin and those of paracetamol. Prostaglandins participate in the inflammatory response which is why it has been known to trigger symptoms in asthmatics, but paracetamol has no appreciable anti-inflammatory action and hence does not have this side-effect. Furthermore, COX also produces thromboxanes, which aid in blood clotting - aspirin reduces blood clotting, but paracetamol does not. Finally, aspirin and the other NSAIDs commonly have detrimental effects on the stomach lining, where prostaglandins serve a protective role, but paracetamol is safe.

Indeed, while aspirin acts as an irreversible inhibitor of COX and directly blocks the enzyme's active site, paracetamol indirectly blocks COX, and that this blockade is ineffective in the presence of peroxides. This might explain why paracetamol is effective in the central nervous system and in endothelial cells but not in platelets and immune cells which have high levels of peroxides.

In 2002 it was reported that paracetamol selectively blocks a variant of the COX enzyme that was different from the then known variants COX-1 and COX-2. This enzyme, which is only expressed in the brain and the spinal cord, is now referred to as COX-3. Its exact mechanism of action is still poorly understood, but future research may provide further insight into how it works.

A single study has shown that administration of paracetamol increases the bioavailability of serotonin (5-HT) in rats, but the mechanism is unknown and untested in humans.

please noted that COX= CycloOXygenase (COX)

Friday, November 12, 2010


ilmu Allah itu merupakan nur (cahaya),bagaimana cahaya hendak menembusi hati dan jiwa andainya hati telah digelapkan dengan noda-noda hitam.

Al-Imam Ibnu Qayyim dalam kitabnya Madariju As Salikin, mengatakan bahawa “Ilmu(agama) itu adalah pertunjuk, dan ia adalah ketinggalan dan pewaris nabi. Dan orang yang berilmu(agama) adalah generasi dan pewarisnya, dan dia(ilmu) adalah penghidup hati”.

Dan dalam kitab ad Diwan pula, Al-Imam Syafie mengadu kepada kepada Imam Wakie’ tentang buruknya hafalan dia, lalu Imam wakie’ memberitahu supaya tinggalkan maksiat. Dan katanya lagi kepada Imam Syafie ‘ilmu itu adalah cahaya, dan cahaya Allah tidak akan masuk ke hati seseorang yang melakukan maksiat”.

Orang yang berilmu adalah orang yang paling terang hatinya dan mampu menerangi orang lain.

Thursday, November 11, 2010



: schistosomiasis
: welcome trust
:genito-urinary parasites
2)Zagazig university, foundation in parasitology

Schistosomiasis life cycle | Wellcome Trust (click this link for animation = must see!!)

ok..jom berkenalan dgn Schistosoma lak:

~~~~Schistosoma is also known as BLOOD FLUKE!~~~~~~~

in affected man, they can causing cercarial dermatitis.
general characters of schistosoma:
  1. oral & ventral suckers are little distance apart.
  2. mouth leads to oesophagus, which divides infront of the ventral suckers,then reunite to form a single caecum.
  3. adult male is flattened dorso-ventrally but folded on itself to form gynaecophoric canal. its cuticles covered with tubercles.
  4. testes lie behind ventral sucker.
  5. adult female is cylindrical. its cuticle is smooth
  6. ovary is ovoid lies in front of union of the intestinal caeca.
  7. oviduct proceeds anteriorly, it dilates to join the ootype.
  8. vitelline gland are on either sides of the single caecum. Vitelline duct opens in ootype.
  9. uterus proceeds from ootype to open by vagina in the genital atrium.

i) 3 types of species that affecting human:
  • Schistosoma haematobium
  • Schistosoma japonicum
  • Schistosoma mansoni
ii) caused of schistosomiasis :
  • by digenetic blood trematodes.
iii) General Distribution:
  1. Schistosoma mansoni = Africa, Middle East, South America & Caribbean
  2. Schistosoma haematobium = Africa, Middle East
  3. Schistosoma japonicum = Far East
iv) Habitat :
  1. S. haematobium = venous plexus of bladder, also in rectal venules.
  2. S.japonicum = sup. mesenteric Veins (draining the small intestine)
  3. S.mansoni = inf. mesenteric Veins (draining the large intestine)
v) transmission:

Host :

· Definitive host:

§ S.haematobium: man only

§ S. japonicum : Dogs, Cats, Sheeps, pig, goat, cows

§ S. mansoni : monkeys, chimpazees, rodents

· Intermediate Host:

§ Snails i) g. Bullinus = S.haematobium

Ii) g. Biomphlaria =S. mansoni

iii) g. Oncomelania=S. japonicum

eg : genus biomphlaria = S.mansoni

for more picture click here

Infective stage :

§ BIFURCATE CERCARIA swimming in water

· Diagnostic stage:

§ Characteristic EGG in URINE/ STOOL

vi) cell cyle:

vii) pathology and pathogenesis:

Pathological lesions in schistosomiasis result from EGG DEPOSITION IN TISSUES.

Eggs --> Granuloma formation (around tissue affected)--> Delayed hypersensitivity via cell-mediated immune response

1)Granuloma (formed of schistosome)--> cellular aggregation of eosinophils,monocytes,lymphocytes,neutrophils, and plasma cells--> fibroblast appearance--> fibrosis + obstruction of B.V

2)immuno-pathology: due to immune complex deposition in various tissues esp, kidney glomeruli. Immune complex is formed from antigen-antibody combination

Treatment: Until the 1970's, treatment of schistosomiasis was nearly as dangerous as the disease itself. Modern treatment is effective and without risk. Three new drugs have revolutionized treatment:
  • Praziquantel - effective in the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis, with virtually no side effects
  • Oxamniquine - used exclusively to treat intestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and South America
  • Metrifonate - effective for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis

Modern diagnostic techniques are simple, easy to apply and cost very little. Although reinfection may occur after treatment, the risk of serious disease developing in the body organs has been greatly reduced, and it has been observed that there is a marked regression of lesions in young children following treatment of the infection. In the majority of localities where treatment is provided, the total number of cases is reduced within 18 to 24 months. In other localities, according to the local situation, the prevalence has been substantially reduced, and it is encouraging to note that no further intervention is required for intervals between 2 and 5 years.

To be effective, schistosomiasis control strategies should be adapted to the local epidemiological situation and caution must be taken when destroying freshwater snails using chemicals - particularly in terms of impact on the environment.

In 1983, the World Health Organization, in association with the health ministries of several endemic countries (Botswana, Egypt, Madagascar, Mauritius and Zanzibar), launched a massive programme to assess control methods. The findings of this programme are as follows:

  • Single dose praziquantel is effective in reducing prevalence and in containing the disease
  • Schistosomiasis treatment must be accompanied by health education.
  • Praziquantel can be safely administered by primary healthcare teams
  • It is almost always necessary to repeat the treatment, but the interval may be up to 5 years in some situations where transmission is low.
  • A simple and rapid test for blood in the urine using a paper strip soaked in a reactive agent is more reliable than a microscopic examination, which can prove difficult in the field.

p/s: ok dats all for this tyme kite ckp pasal drugs pulak insyaALLAH..
segala kekurangan harap dimaafkan..

btw: tolong doakan anak buah sy, adik shahrul Hisyam bin Samawi (2 1/2tahun), adik sekarang di NICU disebabkan spleen cancer,dysfuntioning kidney, metastasis-cancer spread up to vital parts.sekarang adik dah last stage (stage 4= life saving 50-50%)..
but i believe in ALLAH miracle..
jika hidup itu baik bagi adik shahrul Hisyam..
doakan sama-sama agar adik dapat sihat seperti sediakala..
tetapi andai kata kematian adalah yang terbaik untuknya..
doakan adik agar mendapat tempat dikalangan org2 yg beriman..
sesungguhnya perancangan ALLAH itu adalah yang terbaik dan terindah..
moga ditabahkan hati kami sekeluarga..
Al-Fatihah sebagai sedekah utk adik Shahrul Hisyam ..
moga2 sedekah ini dpt mengurangkan kesengsaraan yang dialaminya..

"YA ALLAH sungguh kami sayang akan ahli keluarga kami..akan tetapi..jika ENGKAU lebih menyanyanginya..kami redha YA ALLAH.. tabahkanlah hati kami ..kerana kami ini hambamu yang hina..lemah dari segala sudut..tabahkan kami ya ALLAH..tabahkan kami..tabahkan kami..ameen ya Rabb.."

~tears oozing out.. :( ~~minta tlg doakan adik shahrul hisyam kawan2..


source : internet ABC DA SAUDE


What is it?

An infection caused by a parasitic worm of the Trematoda class. It occurs in diverse parts of the world in an uncontrolled fashion (endemic). In these places, the number of people with this parasitosis remains rather steady.

The parasites of this class are five, and vary as causative agent of the infection according to the world region. In our country, schistosomiasis is caused by the Schistossoma mansoni. The chief host and reservoir of this parasite is man, the eggs being disseminated in the environment from man´s feces and urine.

It also has an intermediate host, namely, the snails and slugs, in which the eggs reach the larval stage. This is spread especially in untreated waters, such as lakes, and infects man through the skin, causing skin inflammation. While in man, the parasite develops and settles down in the veins of the intestine and liver, causing their obstruction, this being the cause of most symptoms of the disease, which can be chronic and lead to death.

sorry its blurry..
How is it acquired?

The eggs eliminated by the urine and feces of contaminated individuals evolve to larvae in the water, these lodge and develop in snails. The snail releases the adult larva, which contaminates man on remaining in the water. In the human venous system, the parasites develop until reaching 1 to 2 cm in length, reproduce themselves and shed eggs. The parasite´s development in man takes about 6 weeks (incubation period), that´s when it takes on the adult and reproductive form already in its final habitat – the nervous system. The release of its eggs by man can last many years.

What does one experience?

At the moment of contamination a kind of allergic response may occur in the skin with itching and redness, triggered by the parasite´s penetration. This reaction occurs approximately 24 h after the contamination. After 4 to 8 weeks, there´s the appearance of fever, chills, headache, abdominal pains, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting and dry cough.

While examining the parasitosis carrier, the doctor may find in this phase an enlarged liver and spleen as well as enlarged lymph nodes or lymphodenomegaly. These signs and symptoms usually disappear in a few weeks. Depending on the amount of worms, an individual can be a parasite carrier without any symptoms, or present over the months symptoms of the chronic form of the disease: fatigue, abdominal pain of the colic type with intermittent diarrhea or dysentery.

Other symptoms derive from the obstruction of veins in the spleen and liver with consequent enlargement of such organs and deviation of the blood flow that may cause from discomfort or pain in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen to vomiting with blood due to varices that are formed in the esophagus.

How is the diagnosis made?

To diagnose schistosomiasis the information about the suspect having been to an area where there are many disease cases (endemic area) is very important, in addition to the symptoms and signs described above (clinical condition). Feces and urine tests with eggs of the parasite or even small tissue samples from some organs (biopsy of the mucosa from the end of the intestine) are the ultimate exams. More lately, there are exams available that detect, in the blood, the presence of antibodies to the parasite that are useful in those cases of mild or symptom-free infection.

How is it treated?

The treatment of choice is with antiparasitic drugs, chemical substances that are toxic to the parasite. Currently there exist three groups of substances that eliminate the parasite, but the medication of choice is Praziquantel, which is taken in the form of pills, almost always during one day. That´s enough to eliminate the parasite, also getting rid of the dissemination of eggs into the environment. In those cases of chronic disease, the complications require specific treatment.

How to prevent it?

As it is a worldwide disease, endemic in several places (Arabic Peninsula, Africa, South America, and Caribbean), health public organizations (WHO – World Health Organization – and the Health Ministry) have specific programs for managing the disease. Basically, the strategies for managing the disease are based on:

-Identification and treatment of carriers.

-Basic sanitation (treated water and sewers), besides fighting the intermediate molluscan host.

-Health education.

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

cell injury (kecederaan sel badan)

assalamualaikum w.b.t,
pertama sekali..kita mulakan dgn bacaan yg diatas..agar..apa yg bakal kite kongsikan ini dapat memberi manfaat sekaligus mendapt redha dari yg ESA..ameen..

kite mulakan..(maaf sekiranya bahasa rojak-pasar-baku bercampur aduk..kedhaifan sy kiranya)

cell injury:

definition :
refer to structural, biochemical and morphological changes due to injurious agents.


  • hypoxia
  • ischemia
  • physical agent
  • infectious agents
  • metabolic causes
  • immunologic reactions
  • nutritional reactions
  • aging
ok sekarang kite perbahaskan..mengapa dan bagaimana??
always ask urself how n why it happen??then u might find d answer insyaALLAH:

  1. pathological condition in which the body as a whole or region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply
  2. please click on this link to get clearly..function of oxygen!
  3. hypoxia----> oxygen deficit ------>reduced cellular respiration -----> cell death
  1. is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue
  2. ischemia--->impeded art.flow/reduced v. drainage--->damage/dysfunction of tisssues
C.physical agents:

D.chemical agent:

E. infectious agents: we ill discuss later on.

F.metabolic causes:
  1. Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us (or any living organism). Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances)
  2. eg:diabetic patients.
  3. diabetic patient--->low insulin level-->decrease uptake of glucose to cells-->loss of cells functions
G.immunologic reaction
  1. anaphylactic reaction n autoimmune diseased.
H.nutritional imbalance

  1. old age enhance the cell injury due to defect in the body function.